Tuesday, February 21, 2017

Alfalfa Weevils

Alfalfa Weevils The alfalfa weevil is the most important pest of alfalfa in Eddy County NM.It overwinters as both eggs and adults. During mild winters in Eddy County, larvae may also begin hatching. However, hatching generally begins in early spring and feeding on the growing tips of alfalfa becomes evident in February or March. Young larvae are yellowish in color, but as they mature, they turn green with black heads and possess a white stripe down the center of the back. Jane Pierce of the Artesia Center is reporting finding economic levels along with aphids. Dr. Pierce is find them as well as aphids. For more information see: http://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_a/A338/welcome.html

Overhaul of New Mexico gross receipts tax proposed

Overhaul of New Mexico gross receipts tax proposed Albuquerque Journal By Dan Boyd Some critics have described New Mexico’s current gross receipts tax structure as “Swiss cheese” due to all the carve-outs, and Harper’s bill would rebrand the gross receipts tax as a sales tax, which most other states impose. He also said that doing away with most gross receipts tax exemptions would make the tax code more equitable.. The legislation would also have to gain approval from Gov. Susana Martinez, who has vowed to veto any tax increases approved by the Legislature. But Harper said staffers with the Governor’s Office have told him there’s a good chance the governor would sign the bill.

Monday, February 20, 2017

Medicated Feed

As of January 1, 2017, animal producers will not be able to purchase feeds over the counter that contain antimicrobials deemed important for human health. Instead, to buy and use feeds containing those antimicrobials, animal producers must be authorized by a licensed veterinarian who is operating under the Food and Drug Administration’s revised Veterinary Feed Directive, or VFD, rule. The VFD rule has been in effect for 20 years, but it affected only a small number of producers and just a few antimicrobials. As of January 1, changes to the rule will mean that it will impact most animal producers and apply to many more antimicrobials. The antimicrobials that will be covered by the VFD rule are considered “medically important,” because they are important for human health. A list of medically important antimicrobials is in Appendix A of FDA’s Guidance for Industry #152: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AnimalVeterinary/GuidanceComplianceEnforcement/GuidanceforIndustry/UCM052519.pdf. And, information on drugs transitioning from over-the-counter status to VFD status is available here: http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/ucm482107.htm.) Also, after January 1, animal drug sponsors will have removed the claims of “growth promotion” and “feed efficiency” from the labels of medically important antimicrobials. Animal drug sponsors, in cooperation with CVM, are currently changing the labels for their products so that production claims such as “growth promotion” or “feed efficiency” will be gone from labels, thus those uses will no longer be permitted. These changes will have a significant effect on the animal production industry. We believe that you, in your role as a County Agricultural Agent, can help animal producers learn about the changes and how to comply. Animal producers must have a VFD order – issued by a licensed veterinarian, operating under a veterinarian-client-patient relationship – to use a feed with a medically important antimicrobial. (To find out more about veterinary-client-patient relationships, see Guidance for Industry #120, which you can get to from the VFD page listed below.) The feed distributor that the producer works with must receive the order before releasing the VFD feed to the animal producer. The veterinarian can, for example, give the producer a second copy of the order (one for the producer to keep, and one for the producer to give to the feed distributor), or the veterinarian could send the order directly to the feed distributor. The animal producer must use VFD feeds only in accordance with the VFD order. In other words, the producer can feed only those animals identified by the order, and only during the time period specified in the order. Feeding animals other than those specified in the VFD order or feeding them beyond the expiration date of the VFD order is considered an “extra-label” use of feed. That’s an illegal use. Once the order expires, if continued treatment is required, the animal producer must get a new VFD order from the veterinarian. We understand that there are some questions concerning the use of antimicrobials in feed for show animals, including animals used in FFA and 4-H shows. If you or the animal producers you work with have specific questions about the VFD rule and show animals, please send those questions to this e-mail address: AskCVM@fda.hhs.gov. Your questions will be promptly answered. The changes in the VFD rule will help FDA address the issue of antimicrobial resistance. In principle, giving antimicrobial drugs to food-producing animals at low levels for long periods of time and giving the antimicrobial drugs to large numbers of animals may contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance, which makes diseases caused by resistant bacteria more difficult to treat. Finding antimicrobials to treat a disease is far more difficult when the disease is caused by resistant bacteria. A veterinarian’s involvement is important because veterinarians have the medical training necessary to diagnose the disease and to identify the appropriate antimicrobial for the specific situation. The veterinarian’s involvement will help to ensure judicious use of antimicrobials. Here’s how you can find out more about the VFD rule. More information, including brochures in both English and Spanish for producers, veterinarians, retailers, and distributors, is available on FDA’s VFD page: http://www.fda.gov/animalveterinary/developmentapprovalprocess/ucm071807.htm. (Information about the reasons for the change is in Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry #213, which you can find here http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AnimalVeterinary/GuidanceComplianceEnforcement/GuidanceforIndustry/UCM299624.pdf.) Should you have additional questions, please contact AskCVM@fda.hhs.gov. And, for other information about safe feed, please come to www.FDA.Gov/SafeFeed, a site maintained by CVM’s Animal Feed Safety System Team. Sincerely, The FDA CVM Animal Feed Safety System Team

WHAT FERTILIZER SHOULD I USE?

WHAT FERTILIZER SHOULD I USE? What type of fertilizer should you buy and apply this spring. The answer to that question is not an easy one. Economics is important, but quality, rather than cost per unit of nutrient, should be the deciding factor in fertilizer section. The cost and availability of fertilizer took an unprecedented roller coaster ride in the past few years leaving many farmers and home owners wondering what this year is going to be like. Fertilizer quality cannot be defined in rigid terms. If you know the composition and properties of fertilizers and their behavior in the soil, you have a guide for choosing them for specific purposes. Making the right choice has real economic consequences. Characteristics that should be appraised before a fertilizer is selected are: solubility, effect upon soil pH, form of nitrogen, the salt index, and cost per unit of available nutrient. Solubility: Fertilizer compounds differ greatly in their solubility in water. These differences are usually unimportant for application in the solid form. High solubility, however, is one of the major considerations for the grower who purchases solid fertilizer for dissolving in irrigation water, or for application in foliar sprays. Let's compare the solubility of a few fertilizers. When looking at this chart think of the 100 gal of water as being a pickup and the amount listed under it as the number of pounds the pickup can carry or each type of fertilizer. Solubility of Some Fertilizers Pounds Soluble Compound in 100 Gallons of Water __________________________________________________________________ ammonium nitrate 1,617 urea 902 ammonium sulfate 623 diammonium phosphate 574 monoammonium phosphate 312 muriate of potash 283 potassium nitrate 263 sulfate of potash 92 __________________________________________________________________ Fertilizers that have low initial solubility will release nutrients to the soil and plant gradually over an extended period of time. Fertilizer nutrients may be divided into three classes according to their influences on the soil reaction (pH): (1) acidic -- pH below 7.0 (2) neutral -- pH of 7.0 and (3) basic -- pH above 7.0. Use of anhydrous ammonia and ammonia compounds will eventually have an acidifying effect on the soil. This soil acidifying action tends to bring into solution or make available some minor elements such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and molybdenum. This does not mean that the entire soil becomes acidic, just the area around each fertilizer particle or concentration of particles. This acidifying effect is usually of short duration particularly in Eddy county soil. Phosphates are generally neutral in their effect on soil pH, and potassium carriers are basic. The form of nitrogen applied influences directly the nutrition and growth of the plant. In general, plant roots assimilate two common forms of nitrogen-nitrate (NO3) and ammonia (NH3). Most plants seem to prefer the nitrate form. Nitrate and ammonium are readily absorbed and utilized by plant roots. Under favorable conditions, ammonium nitrogen is converted to the nitrate form by nitrifying bacteria in the soil. Therefore, the ammonium forms are not available as rapidly as the nitrate forms. Under adverse soil conditions (temperature below 50 degrees F, too wet or too dry, high salt concentrations, etc.), the conversion of ammonium to nitrate is retarded or halted, and the soil accumulates high levels of ammonium. These high levels may become toxic to plants. Urea is quite soluble and is rapidly broken down to a usable form of nitrogen. Besides uptake by plants, nitrogen is also removed from the soil by leaching and volatilization. Leaching means the nitrogen is washed or flushed out of the soil by irrigation or rain water. Volatilization means the nitrogen escapes as gas. Nitrate nitrogen is sometimes leached from the soil, and ammonium is sometimes volatilized if it is not converted to the nitrate form. Ammonium is rarely leached because it is usually adsorbed to the clay particles of the soil. Nitrate does not become attached. Stabilized ammonium fertilizer is slowly converted to the nitrate form. Since that nitrate is available to the plants over a longer time, it is less subject to leaching or conversion to nitrogen gas. Next week we will cover fertilizer salt index. Subscribe to Eddy County Ag news at: http://nmsueddyag.blogspot.com/ Eddy County Extension Service, New Mexico State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and educator. All programs are available to everyone regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. New Mexico State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Eddy County Government Cooperating.

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

TEN STEPS TO A SUCCESSFUL VEGETABLE GARDEN

TEN STEPS TO A SUCCESSFUL VEGETABLE GARDEN It is that time of the year when people start thinking about vegetable gardening. The same basic steps are used no matter the size or shape of your garden. Step 1. Select a good location, in Eddy County that means a place without rocks if possible. You want an area with good sunlight and I like to have some afternoon shade just because it gets so hot. If you don’t have shade plant your taller crops like corn on the west side of the garden. Step 2. Plan your garden out. Planning ahead will help avoid problems and make your garden easier to work in. I recommend people keep a journal from year to year; this is true for farmers as well. Measure and write down the size of the garden and any containers you may plan on using. I am a visual person so I like to draw out my garden on paper. Decide what vegetables species you want to grow. Mark them out on the paper with room for the plant growth, especially vine plants like watermelons and squish. Step 3: Grow recommended varieties for Eddy County. The Extension office gives two publications away that you may want Circular 457, Gardening in New Mexico and Circular 457-B Growing zones and crop varieties for home vegetable garden. These are both available on line as well. Step 4: Obtain good seed, plants, equipment and supplies. I tell everyone but don’t always do it make a list with alternate varieties before you go shopping. Try not to impulse buy too much, but it is fun to experiment and try different item. Buy from reputable suppliers. Step 5: Prepare and care for the soil. The most important thing you can do to Eddy County Soil is add organic matter. Soil sample and fertilize at the correct abount. Step 6: Plant you vegetables at the correct time and at the correct spacing, usually it is on the seed package or our garden guide. Step 7: Irrigate with care. Rainfall is supplemental to irrigation in Eddy County. Because you planned out your garden you have plants with similar water need near each other. Step 8: Mulch and cultivate to control weed. Get the weed when they are small, the more you mulch the less you have to weed. Step 9: Be prepared for pest and problems, spend time out in your garden and observe, if you see an insects or plants in distress, find out what it is and why. Step 10: Harvest at peak quality, after all this work you do not what it to immature or to mature. For more details than I can write in this article see Circulars 457-A and B. Also I will be adding a few article as the growing season progresses. Eddy County Extension Service, New Mexico State University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer and educator. All programs are available to everyone regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. New Mexico State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Eddy County Government Cooperating

Friday, February 10, 2017

Prescribed Fire Training and Demonstration

Prescribed Fire Training and Demonstration NMSU Corona Range and Livestock Research Center Target Burn Date: February 22, 23, or 24, 2017 (Weather Permitting) Sponsored by NMSU Cooperative Extension and NM Prescribed Fire Council Are you interested in learning how to actually use prescribed fire as a management tool on your private property? Maybe you attended one of our prescribed fire workshops and gained valuable knowledge. However, there is a significant leap between classroom learning and drip torch lighting. We invite you to join us at the NMSU Corona Range and Livestock Research Center where you will have an opportunity to get a drip torch in your hand and gain firsthand experience and skills necessary to safely and successfully use fire as a management tool. Because using fire is weather dependent, we have designated three days in late February as target burn days; specifically February 22, 23 and 24. A week before the target burn day we will contact all registered participants with a projected burn window given the weather forecast and proceed accordingly. To register for the prescribed fire training visit our webpage and click on the registration link. Additional details will be forthcoming. For more information contact Doug Cram, 575-646-8130, dcram@nmsu.edu or contact the NM Prescribed Fire Council.

MASTER GARDNER CLASS OFFERED BY EDDY COUNTY EXTENSION AND NMSU-C

MASTER GARDNER CLASS OFFERED BY EDDY COUNTY EXTENSION AND NMSU-C Eddy County Extension Service will be offering “Master Gardening” class, February 16 to April 28 2017. Call NMSU-C at (575)234-9268 a fee of $125. Classes will be from 6:30 pm to 8:30pm every Thursday night. It is also a chance to meet other people who are interested in gardening and landscaping. Many professional landscape care givers attend these class as well as home owners. This is a beginner’s series and will cover topics such as basic plant science, how a plant grows and works, weather and how it determines what you can grow, basic insect science, vegetable and small fruit production, plant diseases, flower gardening, weed identification and control, pesticide safety and mode of action. The facility for this series includes, Dr. Jane Pierce, Extension Entomologist, Dr. Natalie Goldberg, Extension Pathologist, Dr, Bob Flynn, Extension Agronomist, Dr. Stephanie Walker Vegetable Specialists, Dr. Richard Heerema tree nut specialist, and local county agent Woods Houghton. The fee for this class, which includes an extensive handbook. Many groups chose to form master gardener clubs, which continue to meet after the classes. Pre-registration starts now at the NMSU- Carlsbad continuing education. If you are in need of special assistance due to a disability in order to participate please contact the Eddy County Extension Office 887-6595 before February 8th. For more information contact the Eddy County Extension office or NMSU-C. This and all programs are available to everyone regardless of age, color, disability, gender, national origin, race, religion, or veteran status. New Mexico State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Eddy County Government Cooperating “to put knowledge to work”. There will be two more on Entomology and tree pruning February 16 Plant basics Woods Houghton February 23 Xeriscape Carlos Valdez*. March 2 Tree Nuts Richard Herma* March 10 Vegetables Dr. Stephanie Walker* March 16 Plant Pathology Dr, Goldberg* March 23 Weed Control Dr. Leslie Beck* March 30 Pesticide Woods Houghton April 6 Soils and irrigation Dr. Flynn* April 13 Soils and fertility Dr. Flynn* April 21 Turf Grass / Fruit Trees Sandra Barraza